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Sample Course Syllabi

 

AY 201: ASTROPHYSICS OF RADIATION


D. Backer, 95F


Main References:
  Shu, The Physics of Astrophysics Vol. I : Radiation
  Rybicki & Lightman, Radiative Processes in Astrophysics
  AY201 Big Black Binder in 5th floor Campbell library
  Arons, Notes from AY 201A

Other References:
  Spitzer, Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium
  Longair, High Energy Astrophysics, 2nd edition, 2 Vol.
  Mihalas, Stellar Atmospheres
  Bond, Watson, & Welch, Atomic Theory of Gas Dynamics
  Allen, Astrophysical Quantities
  Lang, Astrophysical Formulae
  Maran (ed.), The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia [von Nostrand] 

Introduction: radiation definitions, black body radiation, 
   photon/wave approaches, noise

   Shu 1 presents some definitions and photon equation of state; 
   Shu 11-12 treat wave approach and polarization; problem 3.3 
   is an E&M exercise.

   RL 1.1-1.4 discuss definitions; 1.5 black body radiation; 2.1-2.3
   E&M approach; 2.4 polarization.

Continuum radiative transfer

   Shu 1 sets up the radiative transfer equation; Shu 2 looks at
   a closure approach to solution; Shu 3 looks at radiative 
   equilibrium solution; Shu 4 considers classical problem
   of plane parallel LTE stellar atmosphere; Shu 5 applies these
   concepts to IR radiation from spherical dust accreting onto a
   protostar; problem 1.2 deals with iterative techniques and
   problem 1.3 with LTE grey atmosphere.

   RL 1.4 presents radiative transfer equation; 1.7 comments on scattering
   opacity; 1.8 looks at stellar photosphere; 2.6 makes link between 
   photon/wave approaches.

   Spitzer 3.1-3.2 introduce radiative transfer and 3.5 deals with 
   example of free-free emission/absorption.

Multipole radiation, bremsstrahlung, Raleigh/electron scattering

   Shu 13-14 develop classical dipole radiation; the end of Shu 14 discusses
   Rayleigh and Thomson (electron) scattering as limiting cases of more
   general classical theory of radiation damping; Shu 15 presents emission
   and absorption bremsstrahlung processes; problem 3.2 involves Thompson
   scattering. 

   RL 2.5,3.1-3.6 are counterparts to Shu 13-14; bremsstrahlung, including
   relativistic regime are in RL 5 (with relitivity introduced in RL 4);
   Compton regime is discussed in RL 7.

Physical state of matter and interactions with radiation

   Shu 6-8 discuss the state of matter and interactions; Shu 10 looks
   at the classical problem of ionization balance of HII regions as
   an example system; problem 1.1 and problem set 2 deal with state of
   matter; problem 3.1 looks at radial structure of an HII region while
   problem 4.3 addresses radio wavelength observations of same.

   RL treat this lightly -- see introduction of Einstein coefficients in
   1.6; scattering in 1.7 and Boltzmann/Saha in 9.5; collisions are discussed 
   as a line broadening source in 10.6.

   Spitzer 4-5 is comprehensive discussion on 
excitation/ionization/dissociation topics 
   (for case of ISM); basics on Einstein coefficients are introduced in 
3.2-3.3.

   Bond, Watson, & Welch incorporate a broad study of this and item 6 below in
   their chapters 4,5,6,8.

Line Radiative Transfer

   Shu 3 mentions line radiative transfer, but the basic treatment is in
   Shu 6; the latter half of Shu 6 discusses several simple examples.

   RL do not treat this.

   Spitzer presents curve of growth for interstellar absorption lines in 3.4.

Parameters of Atomic and Molecular Processes

   Shu 21-27 presents basic quantum theory of atomic processes; Shu 28-30 then
   pick up molecular quantum theory; problem sets 5 and 6 deal with these
   fundamental processes.

   RL deal with these topics in 9-11: atomic structure, radiative transitions,
   and molecular structure.

Synchrotron Radiation, Inverse Compton

   Shu 16-19 starts with radiation from relativisitically moving charge, then
   develops synchroton theory semi-qualitatively, then rigorously.

   RL discuss this in 6.

Pulsar Radiation, Interstellar Medium Propagation

   Shu 20 addresses propagation effects in interstellar medium; problems 4.1 
and
   4.2 are concerned with the classical problem of electromagnetic torque on a 
   neutron star (pulsar).

   RL deal with plasma effects on radiation in 8.

Gravitational Radiation, Gravitational Lensing

AY 202: ASTROPHYSICAL GAS DYNAMICS


J. Graham, 95S


The Cosmos is a wonderful hydrodynamics laboratory that provides us with examples of supersonic motion, magnetohydrodynamic flows, turbulence, and a rich array of instabilities. Astronomers and astrophysicists need a framework within which to explore and understand these phenomenon. This class, the second part of the "Physics for Astrophysics" course taught in the Astronomy Department, will provide the basic tools for understanding astronomical observations by developing a theoretical description of gas dynamics.

No background in fluid mechanics is assumed, but the course is intended for physics/astrophysics students with a strong grounding in mathematics at a senior undergraduate level. Astronomical phenomenology will be introduced in context.

Recommended Textbook: 
"The Physics of Astrophysics: Vol 2, Gas Dynamics", F. H. Shu, 
  University Science Books, Mill Valley, 1992.

Useful texts include: 
"Fluid Mechanics", Landau \& Lifshitz, Pergamon Press, London. 
"An Album of Fluid Motion", van Dyke, Parabolic Press, Stanford. 
"Introduction to Mathematical Fluid Dynamics", R. E. Meyer, Dover, New York.

        Syllabus

Basic Fluid Dynamics 1: Inviscid Flow
  Hydrostatics
    Equations of motion: Euler's equations
    Steady flow: Bernoulli's theorem
    Circulation
    Vortex lines

Basic Fluid Dynamics 2: Viscous Flow
  Viscosity
    Viscous flow
    Reynolds number
    Flow past a cylinder
    Limit of zero viscosity
    Couette flow
  Kinetic Theory
    Boltzmann's equation
    Moment equations
    Transport coefficients
    Navier--Stokes' equation
  Fluids as Continua
    Stokes' theorem
    Eulerian and Langranian descriptions
    Conservation equations
  Accretion
    Collisionless spherical accretion
    Hydrodynamic spherical accretion
    Accretion disks and X--ray sources
    Disk structure
  Instabilities
    Sound waves
    Jeans' instability
    Convective instability
    Rotational instability
    Rayleigh--Taylor, Kelvin--Helmholtz, \& Parker instabilities
    Thermal instability
  Turbulence
    Boundary layers and vortex sheets
    Blasius' problem
    Transition to turbulence
    Kolmogorov spectrum
  Convection
    Mixing length theory
    Convective flux
  Spiral Density Waves
    Basic equations
    Equilibrium and perturbations
    WKBJ approximation
    Observational background
    Kinematics
    Dispersion relations and stability
    Wave propagation and amplification
  Shock Waves
    Characteristics and simple waves
    Formation of shocks
    Jump conditions
    Riemann invariant and flow visualization
    Oblique shocks
    Radiative shocks
    Strong explosions
  Gravitational Collapse
    Hayashi tracks
    Non--homologous collapse
    Self--similar collapse
  Evolution of HII Regions
    Ionization fronts
    Expansion and evolution
    Observations
  Magnetohydrodynamics
    The MHD approximation
    MHD waves
    Parker instability
    Virial theorem 
    MHD shocks
    Dynamos

AY 203: ASTRONOMICAL TECHNIQUES


D. Backer, 99S


In AY 201 we define the received radiative flux and intensity from a source and follow these to the emission region to determine first the 3D emissivity structure, and then the physical properties. In AY 203 the goal is to follow the radiation in the reverse direction - through the telescope optics and into the detector from which data is recorded for subsequent calibration, deconvolution of instrumental artifacts and analysis. A broad wavelength approach is taken which is appropriate to the range of facilities available to UCB scientists. The broad wavelength approach is also appropriate to many concepts that, while couched in different jargon across the spectrum, share many fundamental ideas. Examples are optics, solid state physics of pn junction, deconvolution.

The great breadth of this course will be complemented by depth as students ``adopt a wavelength band'' for assignments and presentations. In addition to lectures, reading assignments, oral & written reports and lab work, there will be field trips to nearby observatories and visits to campus labs. Students will work with real data and build models that simulate astronomical signals, noise and errors.

References: Lena, Observational Astrophysics
            Extensive notes, reprints and texts in reading room

Organization & Cosmic Window & Pollution 
   Organization & Introdutory remarks 
   Cosmic window & Pollution 

Volts & Counts & Statistics I
   Probability, Random Variables & Stochastic Processes
   Signal to Noise Ratio : from Waves (volts) to Photons (counts)

Telescope Optics
   Geometrical Optics & Demonstrations
   Physical Optics & Student Presentations

Receivers
   Radio Telescopes, Feeds, Arrays
   Heterodyne Receivers

Backends (IR)
   Power Detectors, Correlators
   AOS, Pulsar Processors

Array Detectors (IR/OPT)
   CCD Arrays, Background 
   IR Arrays

Spectrometers (>= IR)
  Introduction, filters, gratings
  More gratings, optics

High Energy Systems
   Detectors
   Spectrometers; student presentations

Interferometry
   Basics of interferometry
   BIMA Array; VLA; VLBA
   Array sensitivity; array simulation in MIRIAD (Lab)  

Calibration, Absolute Standards & Astrometry/Geodesy/Time
   Student reports

Image Processing
   Deconvolution
   Optical interferometry

Corrupted Visibility/Image Processing - I
   Unstable visibility phase & self calibration
   Unstable image

Corrupted Visibility/Image Processing - II
   Speckle interferometry, Knox Thompson, Triple Product/Bispectrum
   Proposals due; presentations 

Concluding presentations and final remarks

AY 216: INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM


J. Graham, 99S


References:

 Spitzer, "Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium"
 Osterbrock

CNM/WNM
	Jenkins, Jura, Loewenstein 1983, ApJ, 270, 88
	Wolfire et al. 1995, 443, 152

WIM
	Taylor and Cordes 1993, ApJ, 411, 674
	Reynolds ApJ 1991, 372, L17
	Heiles, Reach, & Koo 1996, ApJ, 466, 191

HIM
	McKee and Ostriker 1977, ApJ, 218, 148

Magnetic Fields & Cosmic Rays
	Boulares and Cox 1990

IS Abundances
	Savage & Sembach 1996, ARAA, 34, 279

INTRODUCTION

RADIATIVE TRANSFER & GAS-DYNAMICS

GAS-DYNAMICS

PHOTOIONIZED GAS & HII REGIONS
  Photoionization: Cross-sections
  Radiative Recombination
  Photoionization Equilibrium
  Temperature of Photoionized Gas: Pure H Region; Cooling by Heavy Elements
  Ionization Structure: Stromgren Sphere; Characteristics of HII Regions; Dust
  Physical Conditions: Temperature & Density
    Spectra; Inferring Densities from Forbidden Lines; Inferring Temperatures	
  Abundance & Abundance Gradients
    Optical Lines; FIR Fine-structure Lines; Primordial He Abundance		
  Radio Emission from HII Regions: Continuum; Radio Recombination Lines
  Stellar Associations	
  Dynamics of HII Regions (1952-63)
    Ionization Fronts; Early Expnasion of HII Regions; Late Dynamics of HII 
Regions;
    Cloud Photoevaporation; GMC Destruction

THE WIM (1964-76)
  Pulsar Dispersion Measure
  Optical Emission Lines
    Electron Density from Emission & Dispersion Measures; Temperature;
    Ionization; Turbulence
  Radio Recombination Lines & Free-Free Emission
  Sources of Ionization of the WIM
  Models for the WIM
  Ionization of the Local ISM
  Interstellar Scintillation
  Rotation Measures - the WIM B-Field

INTERSTELLAR DUST
  Optical Properties of Grains
  Extinction in a Dusty Medium
  Observations
  Grain Temperature
  Grain Size Distribution: Extinction; Dust Emission
  Spatial Distribution of Dust
  Formation and Destruction 
    Stellar & Interstellar Sources; Destruction in Interstellar Shocks

NEUTRAL ATOMIC GAS - THE WNM & CNM
  Basics: Spin Temperature; Optical Depth
  Evidence for a Two Phase Medium: Temperature of WNM & CNM

HI 21 cm EMISSION
  Spatial Distribution of HI
    Vertical Distribution; Radial Distribution; Morphology

ABSORPTION LINES of the WNM & CNM
  Optical Absorption Lines
  UV Absorption Lines 
    HI & H2; Pressure in the ISM; HST Observations of the CNM & WNM

TWO PHASE MODEL OF THE ISM
  Cooling Processes
  Heating Processes
    Cosmic Rays; X-rays; Photoelectric Heating of Grains; Dissipation of 
Mechanical Energy

THERMAL STABILITY
  Isobaric Thermal Instability
  Two-Phase Equilibrium

CORONAL GAS: Supernova remnants and the HIM
  Energy Injection by Stars: Radiation; Mechanical Energy	
  Cooling Time for Hot Gas: Line Emission and Free-Free; Dust Cooling

CREATION/DESTRUCTION OF THE HIM
  Thermal Conduction: Cloud Evaporation; Evaporative Cooling

BLAST WAVES AND SUPERNOVA REMNANT EVOLUTION
  Equations of Motion
    Sedov-Taylor Blast Wave; Radiative Blast Wave; Momentum Conserving 
Snowplough;
    Pressure Drive Snowplough; Adiabatic Bubble; Bubble with Radiative Shock
  Free Expansion
  Sedov-Taylor Expansion
  Radiative Stage
  Merger with ISM: Effects of Clouds
  Stellar Wind Bubbles: Non-radiative Injection; Radiative bubbles

SUPERSHELLS & SUPERBUBBLES & THE THREE-PHASE MEDIUM
  Supershells & Superbubbles
  The Three Phase Model of the ISM
    Filling Factor of Hot Gas; Energy Balance; Mass Balance;
    Spectrum of Clouds with Ionized Edges

MOLECULAR GAS
  Molecular Spectra: Energy Levels; H2; Dissociation of H2; CO
  Polyatomic Molecules
  Radiative Transfer: Line trapping; Large Velocity Approximation

CHEMISTRY
  Types of Reaction
    Gas-grain Chemistry; Ion-Molecule Reactions; Neutral-Neutral reactions;
    Radiative Association; Dissociative Recombination
  Formation of H2 on Grains
  Ion-Molecule Chemistry
  Photo-ionization Dominated Regions
  Heating & Cooling in Molecular Gas
    CO Cooling; Photoelectric Heating Dominated Cloud Envelopes
  Photon Dominated Regions
  Shocks in Molecular Gas: J Shocks & C Shocks

OBSERVATIONS OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS
  Star Formation and GMCs
  CO Surveys: Mass Spectrum
  Larson's Laws
  Molecular Structures
    Galactic Distribution; Out Flow Sources; Hot Cores; Cloud Statistics; 
Bipolar Outflows

MOLECULAR CLOUD STRUCTURE
  Virial Theorem: Thermal Limit; Rotational Limit; Magnetic Limit
  Support by Alfven Waves

STAR FORMATION
  Spectra of Young Stellar Objects
  Associations of YSO & Molecular Clouds
  Infall & Outflows
  Problems of Star Formation: Angular Momentum; Magnetic Flux
  Subcritical vs. Supercritical Star Formation
  Inside-out Collapse

AY 217: Radiative Astrophysics: Stars, Disks, and Winds
G. Basri


Description: this reading course explores how physical conditions in astrophysical objects can be diagnosed from their spectra. Using stars as a relatively well-understood springboard, we discuss how energy flows determine the thermal state of radiating objects (which are at opaque at least at some wavelengths). Non-thermal processes (especially associated with magnetic fields) can also have important effects. Since all we can see is the radiation emitted, we also discuss the physics of radiative transfer which leads to emergent spectral characteristics. These fundamentals are then applied to the problem of understanding stellar spectra, accretion disks in various contexts (particularly star formation and AGN), and winds from stars, disks.
Material from the astrophysical literature will be used extensively, in conjuction with some textbook material. Observational considerations will be touched upon as they come up. This will be conducted as a reading seminar (similar to a tutorial); lectures may occaisionally be given.

Syllabus

Formation of the Continuum
	Plane-parallel, LTE, Static Radiative Transfer
	Radiative Equilibrium and Grey Atmospheres
	Opacities
	Spectral Energy Distributions of Stars
	
Formation of Spectral Lines
	Statistical Equilibrium
	Line Opacities
	Line Profile Formation
	Stellar Spectral Types
	Thermal and Chemical Line Diagnostics
	Effect of velocity fields
	Line Blanketing
	NLTE effects
	Gravity and Magnetic Diagnostics
	Chromospheres and Heated Layers
		
Line and Continuum formation in Disks
	Spectral Energy Distributions of Disks
	Thermal structure of disks and reprocessing
	T Tauri disks
	AGN disks
	
Diagnostics of Winds and Outflows
	Coronal Winds
	Spherical Atmospheres
	Radiatively Driven Winds
	Winds and Jets in Star Formation
---------------------------------	
Reference Reading List 

Selected papers from astrophysical journals
Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres (Rutten, online)
The Physics of Astrophysics. I. Radiation (Shu)
Stellar Atmospheres (Mihalas)
Accretion Processes in Star Formation (Hartmann)
The Observation and Analysis of Stellar Photospheres (Gray)

AY 218: GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC ASTRONOMY


H. Spinrad


This course will survey the phenomenology of galaxies, including the Milky Way. There will be theoretical discussion of galactic structure, and a brief introduction to galactic dynamics and stability. The intent is to integrate the discussion of our galaxy in comparison with other galaxies, and to discuss the common questions of formation and evolution of galactic systems.

     1. Some basics about our galaxy and its neighbors.
        a)  Stars near the sun.
        b)  Stellar populations in our galaxy and nearby systems.
        c)  Gas in galaxies, (and how to use it).
        d)  More sysnthesis of populations: metals, ages, and galactic
        distributions...(Freeman Law).
        
     2.  Milky Way Kinematics.
        a)  Differential Rotation of the Galaxy.
        b)  Vertical Structure.
        c)  Oort Constants.
        d)  The Galactic Center..hot stuff!
        
     3.  Rotation Curves for other Spirals.
        
        a)  Spider diagrams.
        b)  Masses and mass decomposition. Dark matter vs visible matter.
        
     4.  Elliptical galaxies.
        a)  Photometry of Es.
        b)  Velocity dispersions and (some?) rotation.
        c)  Relaxation times.
        d)  Mass determinmmations.
        
     5.  More on Dark matter evidense in Milky Way and Spirals and E gals.
     
     6.  Extragalacic Star Formation (Morphological).
     
        a)  UV radiation from hot young stars. Calibration in terms of SFR.
        b)  The older populations; previous SF episodes and ancient history.
        
     7.  More on GAS (3 phases) and DUST in nearby galaxies.
        a)  IR explorations..pre SIRTF (just).
        
     8.  The Hubble Expansion and the velocity field nearby.
        a)  Determination of Ho; the extrgactic distance scale.
        b)  A smooth Hubble Flow??
        c)  Voids and density contrasts. Gas (abs) vs galaxies. 
        
     9.  The Galaxian Luminosity Function.  
        a) Catalogues and the Field Population Lumin. function.
        b) Clusters and their function. Schechter's fit.
        
    10.  The Physical situation in Rich Clusters.
        a)  Galaxies; their types in clusters.
        b) X-ray gas, 1E x7 temp in rich clusters.
        c) Cluster masses.
        
     11.  AGN.
        a)  History since 1963.
        b)  Physical situation in nuclei...SMBH likely.
        c)  Unifications and modeling.
        d)  AGN evolution? Probably so.
        
     12.  At the Limit. Star forming galaxies at large redshifts.
        a)  Ways to locate the rare and distant SF galaxies.
        b) Modern results beyond z=5.
        c) QSO's and the termination of the 'Dark Ages" (z>6).
        
     13.  Theory and observations of Galaxies "IN Formation".

AY 228: PHYSICAL COSMOLOGY


M. Davis


This course will present an overview of current topics in physical cosmology, with an emphasis on structure formation on all scales. Topics for discussion include: the Robertson-Walker metric, Friedman solutions, measurement of cosmological parameters, the thermal history of the Universe, early universe physics, fluctuation generation and growth, microwave background radiation, dark matter, statistics of the galaxy distribution, gravitational lenses, linear and nonlinear evolution of structure, and the formation of galaxies.

Recommended texts:
  "Galaxy Formation" M. Longair
  "Structure Formation in the Universe", T. Padmanabhan
  "Cosmological Physics" J. Peacock

                    SYLLABUS

Observational Background:
        Galaxies
        Groups and Clusters
        Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution
        CMBR, etc.
 
The Expanding Universe
        Robertson-Walker Geometry
        Classical Cosmological Measurement
        Fluctuations in an Expanding Universe

The Cosmic Microwave Background
        Blackbody Spectrum
        Thermal History of the Universe
        Primordial Nucleosynthesis

Early Universe
        Inflation
        Fluctuation Generation
        Dark Matter, Hot and Cold

Tests of Cosmological Models:
        Global measures of q_0, Lambda
        Local Tests of Omega, e.g.
          Virial arguments, X-ray gas, weak lensing
          cosmic energy equation
          velocity-gravity field comparisons      

Galaxy Formation and clustering
        Numerical methods:
        	Zeldovich Approximation
        	Formation of Caustics
        	N-body simulations
        Hierarchical dark matter models

The Formation of Galaxies
   	Counts of galaxies, redshift distribution
	Ly-break galaxies at z=3
        Models of Galaxy Formation         
        
        
Confrontation of LSS models with observations:
        Anisotropy of the CMBR, large and intermediate scale  
        Bias in the Galaxy distribution
        Power Spectrum of the galaxy distribution
        The Normalization of the matter clustering amplitude

Gravitational Lenses as a Cosmological Tool
        Fundamentals
        Measurement of Cluster Potential Well Depth
        Measurement of matter fluctuations


The Intergalactic Medium and Ly-alpha clouds
        Thermal history of the IGM

AY 249: SOLAR SYSTEM ASTROPHYSICS


I. dePater, 98F


Solar System research comprises many different areas of research, such as atmospheric science, geology, magnetospheric physics, comets, formation theories. An extensive outline of the various topics is listed below. Though we won't be able to cover all topics in detail, we will touch upon most of them, and cover some of them in detail. Extensive notes (or the book) will be available, as well as problem sets.

SYLLABUS: The wonders of our nearby Universe: the Solar System}

General overview (general appearance of planets, sizes, distance to sun,
   terminology, history).

Dynamics: basic laws of mechanics and some applications (Kepler's
  laws, tidal interactions, resonance interactions, ring dynamics); Solar 
  radiation.

Solar heating and energy transport

Planetary atmospheres/ionospheres (observations, composition, line
  shapes, cloud physics, meteorology).

Surfaces of planetary bodies (including impact processes, rocks/minerals, 
magmas).

Planetary interiors (basic principle to deduce the structure of a planet's
  interior from the observed quantities; terrestrial and giant planets).

Magnetospheres (basic ideas about particle motion in magnetic field,
  "origin" magnetic field, plasma sources, radio emissions).

Meteorites

Asteroids

Comets 

Planetary Rings

Formation Theory

Extrasolar Planets

AS/PH 252: STELLAR STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION


L. Bildsten, 98S


A one semester graduate course on stellar birth, life and death. Star formation by gravitational collapse of molecular clouds. Main sequence evolution of high and low mass stars. Thermonuclear processes and element formation. Stellar death via supernovae or planetary nebulae, leading to white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. Structure and emission properties of the isolated and cooling compact remnants. Additional topics include: stellar oscillations, binary evolution, stellar mass loss, and neutrino astrophysics.

You are also invited to attend the weekly "Brown Dwarfs and Giant Planets" seminar that I am running with Prof. Geoff Marcy. Some of this seminar's topics will overlap with this class, but not too much. Much of the seminar will go into more details about Jupiter size objects (both in our solar system and beyond) and brown dwarfs. Basically all of those objects that never burn their hydrogen.

Required texts: 
"Stellar Interiors: Physical Principles, Structure and Evolution" 
    by C. J. Hansen and S. D. Kawaler 
"Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis" by D. Clayton

On reserve: 
"Stellar Structure and Evolution" R. Kippenhahn & A. Weigert 
"Frontiers of Stellar Evolution" D. L. Lambert 
"Physics of Compact Objects" S. Shapiro & S. Teukolsky 

Very useful:
Mihalas and Binney's "Galactic Astronomy" 
two volume tome by Cox and Giuli on stellar structure
Schwarzschild's "Structure and Evolution of the Stars" 

Syllabus

HYDROSTATICS AND THERMODYNAMICS OF SELF-GRAVITATING OBJECTS 
   (a) Hydrostatic equilibrium in spherical symmetry, Virial Theorem
   (b) Equations of state (ideal gas, radiation pressure) 
   (c) Simple Stellar models and gravitational contraction.
   (d) Importance of Radiation pressure. 
   (e) Diffusion of heat and stellar luminosities. Electrons vs. photons

STAR FORMATION 
   (a) Gravitational Collapse of Molecular Clouds
   (b) Evolution of Protostars, Fully Convective Models. The Hayashi track.

LIFE ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE 
   (a) Thermonuclear energy generation - processes and rates. 
   (b) CNO vs pp burning, the Solar neutrino problem.
   (c) Degeneracy and Brown Dwarf formation 
   (d) Stellar masses, temperature, radii and lifetimes. IMF. 
   (e) Convection: Where and why it occurs 
   (f) The Saha Equation, Simple atmospheres, Spectroscopy. 
   (g) Stellar Wind Theory

LIFE AFTER THE MAIN SEQUENCE
   (a) Degeneracy during stellar evolution. Chandrasekhar Limit. 
   (b) Low Mass Stars: Red Giants, Mass Loss, Shell Burning 
   (c) Massive Stars: C/O Burning, Ne photodisintegration, neutrinos 
   (d) Collapse of Iron Cores: Type II Supernovae, nucleosynthesis. 

COLLAPSED STARS-STRUCTURE AND EMISSION IN ISOLATION
   (a) White dwarf Formation. Thermal Cooling and Observations
   (b) Neutron star formation, structure and Cooling. The TOV equation.
   (c) Black Holes. Formation and Observations 

STELLAR PULSATIONS 
   (a) Equations for Radial and Non-Radial Pulsations 
   (b) Instability Mechanisms and the Cepheids 
   (c) Non-Radial Oscillations in the Sun, White Dwarfs and B-Stars

ROTATION AND MAGNETIC FIELDS (if time allows) 
   (a) Role and Evolution of rotation in stars. 
   (b) Magnetic braking on the lower mass main sequence. 
   (c) Rotation rates for the compact objects 
   (d) Magnetic field strengths and supposed causes on the MS.

AY/PH 254: HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS


L. Bildsten, 98F


This is a one semester lecture course on the broad field of High Energy Astrophysics. The highly recommended texts are ``Accretion Power in Astrophysics'' by J. Frank, A. King and D. Raine and Volumes 1 and 2 of ``High Energy Astrophysics'' by M. S. Longair. They should be available in the local bookstores.

The "bare minimum" prerequisites for this course are all of physics at the upper division undergraduate level. The more basic physics you have had at the graduate level, the easier the course will be for you. You can take this as a first year physics or astronomy graduate student, just be sure to talk to me if you feel the need to confirm that you have enough physics. Though helpful, no astronomy background is needed.

The following books are helpful to different degrees for this course:

"Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis", D. Clayton,
"Stellar Structure and Evolution", R. Kippenhahn & A. Weigert,
"Stellar Interiors: Physical Principles, Structure and Evolution"
    C. J. Hansen and S. D.  Kawaler, 
"Physics of Compact Objects", S. Shapiro & S. Teukolsky, 
"Active Galactic Nuclei" by R. D. Blandford, H. Netzer & L. Woltjer, 
"Interacting Binaries" by S. Shore, M. Livio and E. van den Heuvel.

                   SYLLABUS

THE SIMPLE PHYSICS OF ACCRETION DISKS
  (a) The Bondi-Hoyle Accretion Rate, Energy Release 
  (b) Steady Spherically Symmetric Accretion and the Eddington Limit 
  (c) The role of angular momentum and need for a large viscosity
  (d) The Shakura-Sunyaev $\alpha$-disk. Thermal Spectrum and Dependence on 
central mass. 
  (e) Thick disks, quasi-spherical accretion, and inefficient emission. 
  (f) Recent application to our Galactic Center and other Black Holes

ACCRETION ONTO COMPACT OBJECTS IN BINARIES
  (a) Review of Stellar Structure and Evolution in Binaries
  (b) Conservative Mass Transfer and Effects on the Orbital
        Elements. Evidence for orbital evolution. 
  (c) How Gravitational radiation, magnetic braking and
        stellar evolution fix $\dot M$
  (d) Unstable Mass transfer and Common Envelopes. 
        Origin of short-period Cataclsymic variables. 
  (e) The thermal instability of accretion disks, dwarf novae, X-ray transients 
  (f) Magnetic White Dwarfs: Hard X-ray emission, Comptonization 
        and cyclotron  cooling. 
  (g) Accreting Neutron Stars: Why X-rays rather than Gamma-rays? 
  (h) Magnetic accretion onto neutron stars:  X-ray pulsars, torques and 
cyclotron lines 

SUDDEN THERMONUCLEAR ENERGY RELEASE FROM ACCRETED MATTER
  (a) Accretion onto White Dwarfs (WD) and Classical Novae: 
        Nucleosynthesis and mass ejection.
  (b) Are the Super-Soft Sources from ROSAT steadily burning their accreting 
fuel? 
  (c) What happens when a WD is pushed over the Chandrasekhar limit by 
accretion? 
  (d) The Physics of Combustion Fronts. Deflagration versus
        Detonation, Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities 
  (e) Type Ia supernovae versus
        Accretion-Induced Collapse to neutron stars 
  (f) Type I Bursts from Neutron Stars and Neutron Star Spin Measurements

NON-THERMAL EMISSION: SUPERNOVAE REMNANTS, COSMIC RAYS AND PULSARS
  (a) Galactic Non-Thermal Radio emission: Synchotron radiation from 
relativistic electrons.
  (b) Polarization and the Galaxy's magnetic field. 
  (c) Gamma-ray Emission from the Galactic Plane.
  (d) Cosmic Ray Acceleration and Evolution in the Galaxy 
  (e) Supernovae Remnants and the Need for Energy Injection in Plerions
  (f) Simple Aspects of Tapping Rotation and Inferences on NS  Magnetic Fields 
  (g) "Magnetars" as Soft-Gamma Repeaters and recent progress
	 on $B\sim 10^{14} \ {\rm G}$ neutron stars. 

RELATIVISTIC JETS AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS
   (a) Theory and observations of Radio sources and "superluminal" motion. 
Radio lobes 
   (b) Blazars from EGRET: beamed jets and models for the
           gamma-ray emission. High energy neutrinos? 
   (c) What is the energy source? Blandford-Znajek ? 
   (d) Overview of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Spectra, Durations and Repetition? 
   (e) Statistical Motivation for Cosmological GRB Origin and Coalescing NS/NS 
Binaries.
   (f) Simple Fireball Models and Repercussion for Optical/ X-Ray Afterglows.
   (g) Gravitational Wave detection of NS/NS binaries with LIGO. 

BLACK HOLES IN GALACTIC CENTERS: ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI 
   (a) The Phenomena of Active Galactic Nuclei. The Center of Our galaxy
   (b) Simple Application of an accretion disk and the  big blue bump.
   (c) The observed non-thermal emission as shown by X/Gamma-rays.
         Hot Coronae and Comptonization
   (d) What is the source of material for the AGN? Bar
         dynamics? Interactions?
AY 255: COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN THEORETICAL ASTROPHYSICS


R. Klein, 99S


This new course will present a broad survey of state-of-the-art approaches to astrophysical self-gravitational gas dynamics with application to modern simulation of coupled non-linear astrophysical flows and their solutions on supercomputers. We will begin with the development of the fundamental concepts underlying finite-difference approaches for Lagangian and Eulerian astrophysical hydrodynamics. We will develop a unified approach to the coupling of radiation with hydrodynamics. The lectures will examine currently favored N-body gravitational techniques including direct N-body, P-M and P3M formulations as well as hierarchical Tree-approaches. Standard particle gas dynamic methods such as Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) as well as recent developments with Adaptive SPH will be discussed and contrasted with finite difference approaches. Methods unifying SPH and Tree hierarchies (TREE-SPH) and their application to cosmological simulation will be examined. More advanced techniques such as higher order finite difference hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) will be presented.

Applications of these approaches in three broad areas will be presented: Cosmology, including cluster, galaxy and large scale structure formation; High Energy Astrophysics including accretion onto compact objects with application to the recent RXTE discovery of fast time variability in neutron stars and their interpretation as photon bubbles, and the Interstellar Medium including the interaction of supernova shocks with interstellar clouds, collisions of interstellar clouds and supernova explosions and related hydrodynamic instabilities.

The course will stress an active participation of students in projects involving the application of the simulation methods to solving contemporary astrophysics gas dynamic problems on the computer. This course is extremely useful for developing essential numerical simulation techniques for a wide range of modern theoretical astrophysics.

				Syllabus 

I. Basic Concepts of Finite Difference Solutions of Partial Differential
       Equations in Astrophysics
  A. Finite difference techniques; Taylor series expansions, integral methods, 
control 
     volume approach.
  B. Fundamentals of convergence, stability, consistency and accuracy.
  C. Basic finite difference schemes.
  D. Stability analysis of finite difference schemes; Von Neumann stability 
analysis.

II. Hydrodynamics of Compressible Flows
  A. Eulerian, Lagrangian formulations with shocks. 
  B. Finite difference methods for compressible flows; Richtmyer-Von Neumann 
     difference equations, concept of artificial viscosity and effect on 
solutions,
     conservation forms; Eulerian formulation.
  C. Numerical solutions for 1-D compressible flows; strong shock problems, 
     spherical blast waves, supernova evolution, Sedov similarity solutions.

III. Radiation-Hydrodynamics for Astrophysical Flows
  A. Computational methods for solution of the radiative transfer equation.
  B. Combined moment approach and flux limitiing.
  C. Multi-Frequency Grey transport techniques in radiation-hydrodynamics.

IV. N-Body Techniques in Multi-Dimensional Hydrodynamics
  A. General survey of different methods.
  B. Analytic methods; Green's function approaches.
  C. Finite difference algorithms.
  D. Direct N-body summation.
  E. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods.
  F. Cyclic Reduction and FACR approach.
  G. Particle Mesh scheme (PM).
  H. Particle-Particle-Particle--Mesh (P3M) scheme.
  I. Integration of equations of motion of particles in expanding universe.
  J. Hierarchical P-M.

V. N-Body Techniques: Gridless Schemes 
  A. Tree hierarchical structures and Tree codes.
  B. Basis function expansions; spherical harmonic expansions, 
     self-consistent field methods.

VI. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics
  A. Standard SPH.
  B. Adaptive SPH.

VII. Unified Particle-Hydrodynamic Schemes
  A. TREE + SPH (TREESPH).
  B. P3M + SPH (P3MSPH).

VIII. Advanced Methods in Multi-Dimensional Hydrodynamics
  A. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) with Godunov hydrodynamics.

IX. Applications
  A. Cosmology; large scale structure, gravitational evolution of cluster 
formation.
  B. Interstellar Medium; supernova shock-cloud interactions, cloud-cloud 
collisions, 
     induced star formation, supernova explosions.
  C. Star Formation; gravitational collapse and fragmentation of molecular 
clouds, 	  
     formation of binaries and multiple stars.
  D. High Energy Astrophysics; prompt emission from supernovae, dynamics of
     accretion onto neutron stars, formation of photon bubbles, radiation-        	 
     hydrodynamics of winds and coronae of accretion disks.