V. Raindrops Are Falling on My Head

  A. What might the mean annual rainfall of ethane be on Titan?

  B. How large might the ethane raindrops be on Titan?

  C. Imagine that Europa was once covered by a global ocean of water. If we ignore heating due to tidal stressing by Jupiter, an ice shell will grow on the surface of Europa, in the same way that ice covers a pond in wintertime on Earth.

Estimate (ignoring tidal heating) the depth to which the ice shell grows over the age of the Solar System. Say that heat is being conducted from the top of the subterranean ocean, through the ice sheet, to Europa's surface, where it is then radiated away into space. Say further that Europa's surface is held fixed at a temperature maintained by solar heating, and that the ocean temperature is also held fixed (at a value you should be able to estimate).

Be sure to specify how the thickness of the growing ice shell scales with time.

Students in this group: (I: Jessica, Ben, James: No, Monday at 10 am), (II: Adam, Kristina, Jo: Yes)