Physics 7C:
Electromagnetic waves, physical optics, relativity and quantum physics
Key Ideas by Lecture
This is a summary of some of the main ideas. The links point
to sites that might be of interest: some are more detailed explanation of
what we did in lecture, others are more advanced material than we'll cover
in lecture
 Electromagnetic waves (Giancoli Ch. 32)

 Maxwell's Equations in integral form
 Div, Grad, Curl and Maxwell's equations in differential form
 Electromagnetic waves
 The electromagnetic spectrum
 Poynting Vector
 Radiation Pressure
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
Reflection and Refraction (Giancoli Ch. 33)
geometric optics approximation
speed of light in different media
reflection angle equals incidence angle
mirrors: flat, curved
mirror equation, defintions and sign conventions
refraction: snell's law
dispersion
total internal reflection
Some links for further reading (also see general links):
Lenses and Optical instruments (Giancoli Ch. 34)
Thin lens approximation
Types of lenses
lens equation and sign conventions
multiple lenses
lensmaker's equation
Some links for further reading
(also see general
links):
 Imaging with lenses page, Mount Holyoke (has applet)

Diverging lens applet, Web Physics at Mississippi State U.
 Geometrical Ray Tracing, FSU

Matrix methods for multiple lenses (we won't cover this in lecture
but if you want to follow up this is one place to start!)
Refraction/reflection through a boundary(lens or mirror) and
propagation through space to the next boundary (lens or mirror)
can be calculated using products of matrices acting on a
vector describing the initial ray.
See also lecture notes
here, for example, second and third lectures

How a pinhole camera works from Howstuffworks.com (caveat, this
pops up lots of ads!)
 List of
large astronomy optical telescopes by SEDS and
Telescope
information by N. Strobel
 Lensing
by spacetime (gravitational lensing) and the analogy with optics we covered
is described
here.
A striking example is
here, of a galaxy
cluster lensing things behind it.
 also see above links as many discussions consider lenses and mirrors
together

XRay telescopes compared to optical (light) telescopes
Interference (Giancoli Ch. 35)
Huygen's Principle, relation to diffraction and refraction
Interference
Young's Double Slit Experiment
Coherence
Examples of interference, (possible) phase shift upon reflection
interferometers
Holography (Cohn's section)
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Huygen's principle and diffraction, Launceston College

Huygen's principle applet, by W. Fendt (click on next step to get
whole discussion)

Huygen and Fresnel's principles, University College London
 Huygen's
principle in a lot of detail, mathpages.com
 Huygen's principle explanation of why it
shouldn't work and why it should, by Melvin Schwartz
 More pictures on diffraction and double slit experiment,
by D. Lee
 MSU applet on
Interference (vary the distance between 2 sources)
 superposition applet (a reminder), and
Young's double slit example, by Hwang
 two more young's double slit expt applets are
here and
here.

Double Slit by Vtorov
 Young's
Paper on his double slit experiment, 1803 (access restricted to
computers at institutions subscribing to jstor database)
 Interferometry
using Natural light (ie how to get a coherent source), from optics for
kids

LIGO, an interferometer looking for gravity waves caused by
colliding black holes (and other things)

Hologram information, Univ. of South Carolina
 Holograms,
from a thesis on holography by Olsen
 White light reflection
hologram, from 3dimagery.com
 The Edible Hologram, Optics for Kids
Diffraction and Polarization (Giancoli Ch. 36)
Single slit diffraction
Diffraction plus interference for double slit
Multiple slits, diffraction gratings
Resolution limits due to diffraction
Polarization, intensity of transmitted light
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
Special Relativity (Giancoli Ch. 37)
Postulates of Special Relativity
Why? Michelson Morley experiment
Time Dilation and Lorentz Contraction
Lorentz Transformations
Observer dependence: events, clocks
"distance" agreed upon in all intertial frames
Spacetime Diagrams
Simultaneity
paradoxes
Velocity Addition
Mass and Energy
massless particles
(maybe, if time permits) doppler shift
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Quotations about
the end of science right before relativity and quantum mechanics were
discovered, and other "ends", amateur science web page.
Note: it is more supportive of "unconventional science" than I (JDC)
would beit is very hard to change a theory just "a little bit" and any
explanation you give does have to agree with all previous measurements (which
provided the earlier theories)....
 some context for the MichelsonMorley experiment, from U. Va.

Special and General Relativity notes, Mount Allison University

Special Relativity Notes, Virginia Tech

Some more relativity notes, includes discussion of causality
using spacetime diagrams touched upon in class (pages 57).
Lots of pictures.
 fun java movies on relativity, Univ of Winnipeg
 Fun with simultaneity, U.C. Riverside

Introduction to spacetime diagrams,
Visualizing proper time and
twin paradox applet, Syracuse U.

Special Relativity Notes, U. Colorado, lots of pictures
 Notes on
special relativity, Univ. of Virginia
 Spacetime lab, CalTech

relativity and
Relativistic Doppler Effect, hyperphysics
 History of special and general relativity discoveries.
Motivations for
Quantum Mechanics (Giancoli Ch. 38)
Blackbody spectrum
Planck's Hypothesis
Photoelectric effect
Compton effect
Waveparticle duality, numberphase duality (Cohn's section)
Rutherford's scattering experiment
Atomic Spectra
Bohr atom: definition, successes and failures
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
Quantum Mechanics (Giancoli Ch. 39)
Uncertainty principle: position/momentum, energy/time, etc.
Wavefunction
Predictions using wavefunction: probabilities in q.m.
Schrodinger equation, time dependent and time independent
Free particle, wave packets
Particle in a box, some probabilities for measurements
Harmonic Oscillator (Cohn's section)
Particle in a finite well
Particle and a step
Tunneling
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):

Wave packet spread, Hyperphysics
 Biographical background for Schrodinger
Schroedinger equation concepts, hyperphysics
 free particle wavefunction, U. Guelph
 Simple Quantum models, posed and solved, funny gifs (U. Guelph)

Lecture on quantum dots as particle in a box
 expectation or average values of quantities in quantum mechanics,
Hyperphysics

Comparison of Classical and Quantum Probabilities for
a Harmonic Oscillator, Hyperphysics
 finite well applet, Davidson. Well is between x = 0.5 and
+0.5.

Particle in a finite height box, hyperphysics

Physics 137a, Quantum class here, links to lots of things, plus
animations at bottom.

Animations of QM wave packets, U. Rochester,
in particular the spread of a Gaussian.
 Scattering of
a QM wave packet, Silicon graphics

Scanning Tunneling Microscope, Nobel prize emuseum

Quantum Atomic Tunneling, Cornell group
 Diagram of how STM works, IAP/TU Wien

STM image gallery, IBM
 Notes on
Tunneling, esp in NH3, Syracuse
 Barrier penetration and tunneling notes, UIUC

Tunneling in the sun, hyperphysics
 animation of tunneling of wavefunction in 2d, Hungary
 Tunneling of wavepackets, UIUC
 Details of
the tunneling calculation, UCB

New Scientist's Guide to the quantum world, New Scientist Magazine
(like Scientific American, but in the UK)

Schroedinger's cat , Ecole Normale, France
 Decoherence web site, Joos
Hydrogen atom and other atoms (Giancoli Ch. 40)
review of particle in a box
Hydrogen Schroedinger equationparticle on a sphere
Properties of solutions, quantum numbers
angular momentum
spin: SternGerlach
properties of spin systems, quantum computing/cryptography
multielectron atoms
exclusion principle
nomenclature
Xrays
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Some details of solving hydrogen Schroedinger eqn, Hyperphysics
 Hydrogen atom wavefunctions Applet, Davidson
 Hydrogen Atom wavefunctions pictures, Univ. Bonn
 Atomic Orbitals
Applet, MIT
 Everything you
always wanted to know about the H atom but were afraid to
ask, Johns Hopkins U
 Combining some orbitals,
D. Dauger

Electron Spin, Hyperphysics

Behavior of spin under rotations and exclusion discussion at
U Missouri
 Atomic structure properties, Hyperphysics
 Rules for filling up shells in atoms (Hund's rules), UCSD

Masers and lasers page, from Omni magazine

The Quantum Computer, Caltech
 Quantum
Computing, Pro and Con, CalTech (technical article but also
just overview)
 Tutorial on
Quantum Cryptography, Dartmouth
Molecules and Solids (Giancoli Ch. 41)
Bonds in Molecules:Covalent and Ionic
Orbital overlap
Dipoles: Van der Waals Bonds
Potentials for nuclei in molecules
Molecular rotation/vibration, quantum descriptions
Types of bonds in crystals
Madelung const
Metals
Free electron gas, density of states, Fermi energy, probability factor f
Band theory for solids: conductor, insulator, semiconductor
holes and particles, doping, transistors
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Orbitron, molecular and atomic orbitals, Sheffield, UK.

Molecular orbital pictures for many types of molecules, McMaster, Ontario

links on molecular orbital theory, Eth Zurich

Molecular Spectra, Hyperphysics

Lecture notes with many advanced discussions on spectroscopy,
Rutgers

Molecular bond notes, Wisconsin
 notes on molecular orbitals and nuclear potentials, U. Queensland

Chemistry notes on crystals, Maine

Fermi Energy E_{F}, Hyperphysics

Notes on MaxwellBoltzmann distribution, i.e. how to derive it.
(Univ. of South Dakota)

Band theory,
bands for solids,
metals in periodic table,
Hyperphysics
 Introduction
to superconductors, Queensland (these are not closely related to
conductors and semiconductors but were asked about in Cohn's class).
 Solid State Physics Course lecture notes, UIUC

Semiconductors, Hyperphysics
 Semiconductors,
rough guide to electronics (pictures of holes/electrons)
Nuclear Physics
(Giancoli Ch. 42,43)
Four forces of naturestrong, weak, electromagnetic, gravitational
Conservation laws
nucleus decay: alpha, beta, gamma particles (He nuclei, electrons, photons)
stability (shell model)
binding energy
half life
fusion
fission
MRI
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
Particle Physics (Giancoli Ch. 44)
Wavelength and particle momentum
Particle creation
Conserved Charges
Detecting particles
Particle Zoo
Quarks, Color
Leptons (electron, neutrino, etc.)
Photon and particle exchange, range of interaction
Particles for other 3 forces
Standard Model
Questions: Higgs, neutrino masses, quark masses
Symmetry and symmetry breaking
Frontiers: unification,gravity, supersymmetry, strings, extra dimensions
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):

What is Matter?, hypermind, several cutting edge researchers giving
nontechnical descriptions of particle physics models today
 Particle Adventure and
Clickable chart of particle properties, LBL
 Review of Particle Physics, lists of
known particles and their properties and review articles (advanced), LBL
 Article
on using particle tracks, CERN (accelerator in Switzerland/France)
 little movie of exchange forces, particle adventure
 Dave's Microcosmos, on particle physics, Saginaw Valley State University, also
lots of links to other particle physics pages
 www.superstringtheory.com,
string theory web site, esp the intro
pages here
and
here.

slides from intro talk on extra dimensions (Chicago/Harvard)
Cosmology (Giancoli Ch. 453 to end)
General Relativity: spacetime as an entity itself
spatial curvature
expanding universe
expanding universe + matter + dark energy
universe today:expnding, cooling, getting more clumpy
back in time to big bang
forward in time
nucleosynthesis, cmb
structure formation
Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
