Physics 7C:
Electromagnetic waves, physical optics, relativity and quantum physics
Key Ideas by Lecture


This is a summary of some of the main ideas. The links point to sites that might be of interest: some are more detailed explanation of what we did in lecture, others are more advanced material than we'll cover in lecture

  • Reflection and Refraction (Giancoli Ch. 33)
    geometric optics approximation
    speed of light in different media
    reflection angle equals incidence angle
    mirrors: flat, curved
    mirror equation, defintions and sign conventions
    refraction: snell's law
    dispersion
    total internal reflection
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Lenses and Optical instruments (Giancoli Ch. 34)
    Thin lens approximation
    Types of lenses
    lens equation and sign conventions
    multiple lenses
    lensmaker's equation
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):
    • Imaging with lenses page, Mount Holyoke (has applet)
    • Diverging lens applet, Web Physics at Mississippi State U.
    • Geometrical Ray Tracing, FSU
    • Matrix methods for multiple lenses (we won't cover this in lecture but if you want to follow up this is one place to start!) Refraction/reflection through a boundary(lens or mirror) and propagation through space to the next boundary (lens or mirror) can be calculated using products of matrices acting on a vector describing the initial ray. See also lecture notes here, for example, second and third lectures
    • How a pinhole camera works from Howstuffworks.com (caveat, this pops up lots of ads!)
    • List of large astronomy optical telescopes by SEDS and Telescope information by N. Strobel
    • Lensing by spacetime (gravitational lensing) and the analogy with optics we covered is described here. A striking example is here, of a galaxy cluster lensing things behind it.
    • also see above links as many discussions consider lenses and mirrors together
    • X-Ray telescopes compared to optical (light) telescopes

  • Interference (Giancoli Ch. 35)
    Huygen's Principle, relation to diffraction and refraction
    Interference
    Young's Double Slit Experiment
    Coherence
    Examples of interference, (possible) phase shift upon reflection
    interferometers
    Holography (Cohn's section)
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Diffraction and Polarization (Giancoli Ch. 36)
    Single slit diffraction
    Diffraction plus interference for double slit
    Multiple slits, diffraction gratings
    Resolution limits due to diffraction
    Polarization, intensity of transmitted light
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Special Relativity (Giancoli Ch. 37)
    Postulates of Special Relativity
    Why? Michelson Morley experiment
    Time Dilation and Lorentz Contraction
    Lorentz Transformations
    Observer dependence: events, clocks
    "distance" agreed upon in all intertial frames
    Spacetime Diagrams
    Simultaneity
    paradoxes
    Velocity Addition
    Mass and Energy
    massless particles
    (maybe, if time permits) doppler shift
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Motivations for Quantum Mechanics (Giancoli Ch. 38)
    Blackbody spectrum
    Planck's Hypothesis
    Photoelectric effect
    Compton effect
    Wave-particle duality, number-phase duality (Cohn's section)
    Rutherford's scattering experiment
    Atomic Spectra
    Bohr atom: definition, successes and failures
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Quantum Mechanics (Giancoli Ch. 39)
    Uncertainty principle: position/momentum, energy/time, etc.
    Wavefunction
    Predictions using wavefunction: probabilities in q.m.
    Schrodinger equation, time dependent and time independent
    Free particle, wave packets
    Particle in a box, some probabilities for measurements
    Harmonic Oscillator (Cohn's section)
    Particle in a finite well
    Particle and a step
    Tunneling
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Hydrogen atom and other atoms (Giancoli Ch. 40)
    review of particle in a box
    Hydrogen Schroedinger equation-particle on a sphere
    Properties of solutions, quantum numbers
    angular momentum
    spin: Stern-Gerlach
    properties of spin systems, quantum computing/cryptography
    multi-electron atoms
    exclusion principle
    nomenclature
    X-rays
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Molecules and Solids (Giancoli Ch. 41)
    Bonds in Molecules:Covalent and Ionic
    Orbital overlap
    Dipoles: Van der Waals Bonds
    Potentials for nuclei in molecules
    Molecular rotation/vibration, quantum descriptions
    Types of bonds in crystals
    Madelung const
    Metals
    Free electron gas, density of states, Fermi energy, probability factor f
    Band theory for solids: conductor, insulator, semiconductor
    holes and particles, doping, transistors
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Nuclear Physics (Giancoli Ch. 42,43)
    Four forces of nature-strong, weak, electromagnetic, gravitational
    Conservation laws
    nucleus decay: alpha, beta, gamma particles (He nuclei, electrons, photons)
    stability (shell model)
    binding energy
    half life
    fusion
    fission
    MRI
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Particle Physics (Giancoli Ch. 44)
    Wavelength and particle momentum
    Particle creation
    Conserved Charges
    Detecting particles
    Particle Zoo
    Quarks, Color
    Leptons (electron, neutrino, etc.)
    Photon and particle exchange, range of interaction
    Particles for other 3 forces
    Standard Model
    Questions: Higgs, neutrino masses, quark masses
    Symmetry and symmetry breaking
    Frontiers: unification,gravity, supersymmetry, strings, extra dimensions
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

  • Cosmology (Giancoli Ch. 45-3 to end)
    General Relativity: spacetime as an entity itself
    spatial curvature
    expanding universe
    expanding universe + matter + dark energy
    universe today:expnding, cooling, getting more clumpy
    back in time to big bang
    forward in time
    nucleosynthesis, cmb
    structure formation
    Some links for further reading (also see general links):

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    note: pages cited here do not necessarily express opinions of the University of California, its funding agencies, or even, in some cases, the instructors (we might have missed something!)