## Physics 7C: Electromagnetic waves, physical optics, relativity and quantum physics Key Ideas by Lecture

This is a summary of some of the main ideas. The links point to sites that might be of interest: some are more detailed explanation of what we did in lecture, others are more advanced material than we'll cover in lecture

• Reflection and Refraction (Giancoli Ch. 33)
geometric optics approximation
speed of light in different media
reflection angle equals incidence angle
mirrors: flat, curved
mirror equation, defintions and sign conventions
refraction: snell's law
dispersion
total internal reflection

• Lenses and Optical instruments (Giancoli Ch. 34)
Thin lens approximation
Types of lenses
lens equation and sign conventions
multiple lenses
lensmaker's equation
• Imaging with lenses page, Mount Holyoke (has applet)
• Diverging lens applet, Web Physics at Mississippi State U.
• Geometrical Ray Tracing, FSU
• Matrix methods for multiple lenses (we won't cover this in lecture but if you want to follow up this is one place to start!) Refraction/reflection through a boundary(lens or mirror) and propagation through space to the next boundary (lens or mirror) can be calculated using products of matrices acting on a vector describing the initial ray. See also lecture notes here, for example, second and third lectures
• How a pinhole camera works from Howstuffworks.com (caveat, this pops up lots of ads!)
• List of large astronomy optical telescopes by SEDS and Telescope information by N. Strobel
• Lensing by spacetime (gravitational lensing) and the analogy with optics we covered is described here. A striking example is here, of a galaxy cluster lensing things behind it.
• also see above links as many discussions consider lenses and mirrors together
• X-Ray telescopes compared to optical (light) telescopes

• Interference (Giancoli Ch. 35)
Huygen's Principle, relation to diffraction and refraction
Interference
Young's Double Slit Experiment
Coherence
Examples of interference, (possible) phase shift upon reflection
interferometers
Holography (Cohn's section)

• Diffraction and Polarization (Giancoli Ch. 36)
Single slit diffraction
Diffraction plus interference for double slit
Multiple slits, diffraction gratings
Resolution limits due to diffraction
Polarization, intensity of transmitted light

• Special Relativity (Giancoli Ch. 37)
Postulates of Special Relativity
Why? Michelson Morley experiment
Time Dilation and Lorentz Contraction
Lorentz Transformations
Observer dependence: events, clocks
"distance" agreed upon in all intertial frames
Spacetime Diagrams
Simultaneity
Mass and Energy
massless particles
(maybe, if time permits) doppler shift

• Motivations for Quantum Mechanics (Giancoli Ch. 38)
Blackbody spectrum
Planck's Hypothesis
Photoelectric effect
Compton effect
Wave-particle duality, number-phase duality (Cohn's section)
Rutherford's scattering experiment
Atomic Spectra
Bohr atom: definition, successes and failures

• Quantum Mechanics (Giancoli Ch. 39)
Uncertainty principle: position/momentum, energy/time, etc.
Wavefunction
Predictions using wavefunction: probabilities in q.m.
Schrodinger equation, time dependent and time independent
Free particle, wave packets
Particle in a box, some probabilities for measurements
Harmonic Oscillator (Cohn's section)
Particle in a finite well
Particle and a step
Tunneling

• Hydrogen atom and other atoms (Giancoli Ch. 40)
review of particle in a box
Hydrogen Schroedinger equation-particle on a sphere
Properties of solutions, quantum numbers
angular momentum
spin: Stern-Gerlach
properties of spin systems, quantum computing/cryptography
multi-electron atoms
exclusion principle
nomenclature
X-rays

• Molecules and Solids (Giancoli Ch. 41)
Bonds in Molecules:Covalent and Ionic
Orbital overlap
Dipoles: Van der Waals Bonds
Potentials for nuclei in molecules
Molecular rotation/vibration, quantum descriptions
Types of bonds in crystals
Metals
Free electron gas, density of states, Fermi energy, probability factor f
Band theory for solids: conductor, insulator, semiconductor
holes and particles, doping, transistors

• Nuclear Physics (Giancoli Ch. 42,43)
Four forces of nature-strong, weak, electromagnetic, gravitational
Conservation laws
nucleus decay: alpha, beta, gamma particles (He nuclei, electrons, photons)
stability (shell model)
binding energy
half life
fusion
fission
MRI

• Particle Physics (Giancoli Ch. 44)
Wavelength and particle momentum
Particle creation
Conserved Charges
Detecting particles
Particle Zoo
Quarks, Color
Leptons (electron, neutrino, etc.)
Photon and particle exchange, range of interaction
Particles for other 3 forces
Standard Model
Questions: Higgs, neutrino masses, quark masses
Symmetry and symmetry breaking
Frontiers: unification,gravity, supersymmetry, strings, extra dimensions

• Cosmology (Giancoli Ch. 45-3 to end)
General Relativity: spacetime as an entity itself
spatial curvature
expanding universe
expanding universe + matter + dark energy
universe today:expnding, cooling, getting more clumpy
back in time to big bang
forward in time
nucleosynthesis, cmb
structure formation